This depends on the law. If the case concerns illegal conduct by a publicly traded company the whistleblower may be able to use the anonymous filing rules under the SEC whistleblower program. If the case concerns Medicare and Medicaid supported health programs, the claim is governed by the filing rules of the False Claims Act. Under the FCA the initial complaint is filed confidentially, and your identity is protected during the government’s investigatory process. However, once a case is prosecuted, settled or dismissed, the case may become a matter of public record.